Q.1 OLTP vs. OLAP
We can divide IT systems into transactional (OLTP) and analytical (OLAP). In general we can assume that OLTP systems provide source data to data warehouses, whereas OLAP systems help to analyze it. [pic]
- OLTP (On-line Transaction Processing) is characterized by a large number of short on-line transactions (INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE). The main emphasis for OLTP systems is put on very fast query processing, maintaining data integrity in multi-access environments and an effectiveness measured by number of transactions per second. In OLTP database there is detailed and current data, and schema used to store transactional databases is the entity model (usually 3NF).
- OLAP (On-line Analytical Processing) is characterized by relatively low volume of transactions. Queries are often very complex and involve aggregations. For OLAP systems a response time is an effectiveness measure. OLAP applications are widely used by Data Mining techniques. In OLAP database there is aggregated, historical data, stored in multi-dimensional schemas (usually star schema).
The following table summarizes the major differences between OLTP and OLAP system design.
| |OLTP System |OLAP System | | |Online Transaction Processing |Online Analytical Processing | | |(Operational System) |(Data Warehouse) | |Source of data |Operational data; OLTPs are the original source |Consolidation data; OLAP data comes from the various | | |of the data. |OLTP Databases | |Purpose of data |To control and run fundamental business tasks |To help with planning, problem solving, and decision | | | |support | |What the data |Reveals a snapshot of ongoing business processes|Multi-dimensional views of various kinds of business | | | |activities | |Inserts and Updates |Short and fast inserts and updates initiated by |Periodic long-running batch jobs refresh the data | | |end users | | |Queries |Relatively standardized and simple queries |Often complex queries involving aggregations | | |Returning relatively few records | | |Processing Speed |Typically very fast |Depends on the amount of data involved; batch data | | | |refreshes and complex queries may take many hours; | | | |query speed can be improved by creating indexes | |Space Requirements |Can be relatively small if historical data is |Larger due to the existence of aggregation structures| | |archived |and history data; requires more indexes than OLTP | |Database Design |Highly normalized with many tables |Typically de-normalized with fewer tables; use of | | | |star and/or snowflake schemas | |Backup and Recovery |Backup religiously; operational data is critical|Instead of regular backups, some environments may | | |to run the business, data loss is likely to |consider simply reloading the OLTP data as a...
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