Know why hormones target specific target tissues.
Each hormone acts only on a certain group of cells, called its target cells, because only the hormone’s target cells have the appropriate receptor to fit it. When a hormone binds to a receptor on its target cell, a change occurs within the cell. The cell may grow, divide, or change its metabolism in some way. All other cells of the body fail to respond to the hormone because they lack the appropriate receptor. 2.
Know the function of the endocrine system.
The endocrine system is the collection of glands that produce hormones that regulate metabolism, growth and development, tissue function, sexual function, reproduction, sleep, and mood, among other things.
The main function of endocrine glands is to secrete hormones directly into the bloodstream. Hormones are chemical substances that affect the activity of another part of the body (target site). In essence, hormones serve as messengers, controlling and coordinating activities throughout the body. 3.
Know the differences between non steroid hormones and steroid hormones.
Steroid and nonsteroid hormones have different mechanisms of action. Steroid hormones enter the target cell before binding to a receptor, whereas nonsteroid hormones bind to receptors at the outer surface of the cell. Hormones are classified into two basic categories based on their structure and mechanism of action. Steroid hormones are structurally related to cholesterol, and all are lipid soluble. Nonsteroid hormones, because they are structurally related to proteins, are lipid insoluble. The differences in lipid solubility of steroid and nonsteroid hormones explain the differences in their mechanisms of action. Steroid hormones enter the cell, bind to an intracellular receptor, and activate genes that produce new proteins. Nonsteroid hormones bind to receptors on the cell’s surface, initiating a series of events that ultimately alters cellular activity in some way, even...
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