Nature versus Nurture
PSY/330 Theories of Personality
Psychology has not been able to explain why the intelligence in individuals is different. The only way to explain the differences is to look at the individuals lifestyle. Their morals, their social life, their ethics, their education, and other issues. "The topic of why differences occur in intelligence among different people is a great topic for discussion as it creates a lot of interest and debate giving rise to different beliefs of individuals and biases."( Howe (1997)) Nature is where some scientists believe that nature has used genetic predispositions to form your personality. There are many traits that are inherited, the color of your eyes, your temperament, the way you do things. Where other scientists believe that your personality is formed through nurture. Meaning your life's experiences, your education and your environment. The things that you are taught in life are what makes up your personality, The way you talk, walk, socialize, and the way you perceive things. There are some issues with the nature theory. One issue is that there is a question of an existing "gay gene". Meaning that a gay person is born that way. There is also a ”behavioral gene". This gene causes aggressive behavior and abuse. Also, it could cause people to want to get a divorce. The behavioral gene also shows up in fraternal twins. When they are raised separately they show the same behavioral patterns as if they were raised together. Even though fraternal twins could be similar in their ways, the environment could have a nature effect on them. No matter what is researched, there is still the question of is this the way we were born or is this the way experience we have gained through life. "Many scholars think that nature’s role in making differences in the intelligence of individuals need to be accepted as a force that should be considered well for further knowledge."(Anastasi & Urbina, (1997)) Experience is the one thing that can explain the onnection between nurture and nature. Nature is involved in the shape the differences, but nurture controls it too. There are some scholars who believe that the mind of a human being acts in a good way. "This is true because different people have different preset concepts founded on which they can organize or arrange their mind through experiences". (Kline (1991)) The mind will gather knowledge while it is experiencing an action. Right now, human development involves both nature and nurture. The question is which one is responsible for our major development, nurture or nature. "Explaining humans based on solely nature factors is not much convincing as it cannot explain why some values strive to go on, even though, there may not be any natural selection factor present. For example, we may argue why there should be a preference when the individual has chosen a different preference. Sometimes a preference may simply turn into retribution". (Manolakes, (1997)) The reason scholars are debating over this issue is that it has been found that some traits cannot be erased by genes. If everything is based on genetic traits then it would be hard to picture someone with differences is difficult. A perspective from a social science point of view explains that different events can influence the operation of the human mind.. "The activities of human mind actually show proofs of nurture as well as nature".(Ridley, (1999)) and "It is wise to take into account what the social scientists or psychologists are saying. It would be a good decision".( Liungman, (1975)) In conclusion, there is a traditional middle path that people usually agree with. This path takes three different realities into account that people usually agree with. The first one says that both nature and nurture contribute to shaping intelligence. The second says they both work together in...
References: Anastasi, A., & Urbina, S. (1997). Psychological Testing (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Daniels, M., Devlin, B., & Roeder, K. (1997). Of genes and IQ. In B. Devlin, S. E. Fienberg., & K. Roeder (pp. 45-70). Intelligence, Genes, and Success: Scientists respond to The Bell Curve. New York: Springer.
.Howe, M. J. A. (1997). IQ in Question: The truth about intelligence. London: Sage.
Kline, P. (1991). Intelligence: The Psychometric View. London: Routledge.
Liungman, C.G. (1975). What is IQ? Intelligence, Heredity, and Environment. London: Gordon Cremonesi.
Manolakes, L. A. (1997). Cognitive Ability, Environmental Factors, and Crime: Predicting Frequent Criminal Activity. In B. Devlin, S.E. Fienberg., & K. Roeder (pp. 235-255). Intelligence, Genes, and Success: Scientists respond to The Bell Curve. New York: Springer.
Ridley, M. (1999). Genome: The autobiography of a species in 23 chapters. London: Fourth Estate Ltd.
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