unit 2

Topics: Generally Accepted Accounting Principles, Cost, Marginal cost Pages: 4 (817 words) Published: June 23, 2015
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LO1 Understand sources of funding and income generation for business and services industries Funding: sources eg retained profits, loans, banks, investors, small business schemes, franchise, hire purchase, sponsorship, lease schemes, creditors, debt factoring Income generation: methods eg sales, commission, sub-letting, sponsorship, grants, tracking mechanisms

LO2 Understand business in terms of the elements of cost Elements of cost sales; materials; consumables; labour; overheads; capital; gross and net profits; discount costing Selling prices: product and service costing; formula to achieve a specific gross profit percentage; differential gross/net profit margins; marginal costing; effect of competition; freelance; commission; peak/off-peak trading Control of stock and cash: methods eg storage, purchasing, cash, security, reconciliation, stock-taking Taxation: income tax; Value Added Tax (VAT); corporation tax; schedules; rates; personal/capital allowances; post-tax profits, implications

LO3 Be able to evaluate business accounts
Trial balance: source; structure eg summary of accounts from sales, purchase and nominal ledgers Final accounts: types eg sole trader, partnerships, limited company, trading account, profit and loss account, balance sheet, adjustments for depreciation, accruals, prepayments, bad debt provision; format eg vertical, double-entry, appropriation account; assets/liabilities eg capital, fixed, current, notes to accounts Profit and cash budgets: purpose; types eg profit, cash flow, operating, master; variance analysis to include sales (volume and average spend), cost variances (raw material, labour, overhead), profit variances (gross and net)

LO4 Be able to analyse business performance by the application of ratios Sales profitability ratios: gross and net profit; Return On Capital Employed (ROCE) Liquidity ratios:...
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